Saturday, December 28, 2019

Wife Of Baths Tale Analysis - 1265 Words

In The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer gives multiple examples in â€Å"The Wife of Bath’s Tale† of Alice, The Wife, intellectually manipulating her husbands, which portray her as a rebel against female norms of her day and a trailblazer for women going forward. However, there are some incredibly conflicting aspects of the Wife of Bath’s portrayal of women. Certainly, it can be said The Wife of Bath’s Alice was far ahead of her time. In a period when men ruled and women were expected to be subservient, she was the rare exception. She contradicted all the norms of the day and even at times seemed to contradict herself. Although she uses her intelligence to achieve what she wants, she uses another woman’s misfortune as a catalyst for her story and a†¦show more content†¦For example, she partially justified having been married five times on the basis that it was her duty to continue to bear children as â€Å"God bade us to increase and multiply† (28). She was so adamant that her beliefs were the correct ones that she would grow upset when Jenkin, her fifth husband, would â€Å"search his Bible through for a proverb of Ecclesiasticus† as an attempt to try to change her opinion (649-50). Although half her age, Jenkin, obviously bullied The Wife of Bath with his misogynistic views of women and his belief that women were the cause of men’s downfall. Finally, after a night when Jenkin blamed Eve as â€Å"the reason Jesus Christ himself was slain,† she could take no more (717). Alice â€Å"tore [three leaves] out of his book† and then with her â€Å"fis t gave his cheek a hit and he fell backwards right into the fire† (792-93). In the past, Alice had not been afraid to manipulate men and in this instance, Jenkin, to acquire what she wanted. She ripped Jenkin’s book, hit him, knocked him into the fire and when he â€Å"jumped up like a lion full of ire† and hit her back, she pretended to be dying (794). However, her manipulations came to fruition as evidenced by her declaration â€Å"thus gained for myself all the sovereignty—when he had said to me, ’my own true wife’ do as you please the balance of your life† (818-20). Her manipulations were successful in gaining the control she so preferred over her husband. Even though Alice wasShow MoreRelatedThe Wife Of Baths Tale Analysis793 Words   |  4 Pagesthere were knights, kings, queens, and crusades because adultery was looked as a sin due to the fact that in the mid-1400s there was no law higher than the church. In the passage The Wife of Bath’s Tale, Geoffrey Chaucer characterizes the Wife of Bath as a woman who uses men for her needs and pleasure. For example, the wife explains she has many husbands but desires to lust and love other men she acknowledges. In the second passage La Morte D’ Arthur, Thomas Malory explains how people use each otherRead MoreThe Wife Of Baths Tale Analysis1047 Words   |  5 Pagesbecause they considered wives to be gold diggers in which men would pay for their fancy lifestyle. The â€Å"Wife of Bath’s Tale,† was written around the year 1386, by Geoffrey Chaucer who tells a tale about a wife that wants sovereignty over her husbands. Book 18 of â€Å"Le Morte d’Arthur,† was written by Thomas Malory, he tells a tale about Queen Guinevere who wanted to follow the traditional role of a wife, who wanted to marry Sir Lanucelot but never could and have happiness because of the tragic that sheRead MoreEssay on Summary and Analysis of The Wife of Baths Tale1857 Words   |  8 PagesSummary and Analysis of The Wife of Baths Tale Prologue to the Wife of Baths Tale: The Wife of Bath begins the prologue to her tale by boasting of her experience in marriage. She has married five men already, and ignores the idea that this is a reproach to Christian principles. She is merely adhering to the Christian principle of be fruitful and multiply. She cites the case of King Solomon, who had multiple wives, and tells the group that she welcomes the opportunity for her sixth husbandRead MoreAnalysis Of The Wife Of Bath 1660 Words   |  7 PagesThe Canterbury Fails: An Analysis of Misogyny in the Wife of Bath’s Tale At first glance, you wouldn’t think that the Wife of Bath’s tale is anything other than feminist. She is, undeniably, the only non-religious female character in The Canterbury Tales and therefore is the only character who is approached from a point of view that was generally uncommon. We don’t have many— or even any, as far as I’m aware— pieces of medieval literature written by or for women or with a main female protagonistRead MoreThe Wife Of Bath s Prologue1134 Words   |  5 PagesThe Wife of Bath uses bible verses in â€Å"The Wife of Bath’s Prologue.† Further, she employs the verses as an outline of her life to find reason in God to justify her actions. Nevertheless, the purpose of the verses differs within each stanza of the poem. The Wife of Bath is a sexually promiscuous, lustful, and manipulative woman. She marries men one after the other as they get older and die. In order to combat and overthrow the speculation and c riticism being thrust upon her by societal norms becauseRead More Chaucers Canterbury Tales Essay - Women in The Wife of Bath1433 Words   |  6 PagesWomen in Chaucers The Wife of Bath Chaucers The Wife of Baths Prologue and Tale is a medieval legend that paints a portrait of strong women finding love and themselves in the direst of situations. It is presented to the modern day reader as an early tale of feminism showcasing the ways a female character gains power within a repressive, patriarchal society. Underneath the simplistic plot of female empowerment lies an underbelly of anti-feminism. Sometimes this is presented blatantlyRead MoreThe Wife Of Bath, By Geoffrey Chaucer Essay1487 Words   |  6 Pagesas they were subverted into a secondary class position that deprived them of agency and sexual satisfaction. Throughout Geoffrey Chaucer’s â€Å"Canterbury Tales,† the Wife of Bath provides didactic social commentary on the discrepancies between marriage and virginity and expounds the idea of giving sovereignty to women in relationships. Although the Wife of Bath is portrayed and characterized to some antifeminist stereotypes, her fervent and unorthodox commands enrich the reasoning behind her sexual voraciousness:Read MoreThe Wife Of Bath, By William Chaucer2261 Words   |  10 Pages(Chaucer 183). The Wife of Bath is portrayed as a very flamboyant and domineering character. She enjoys things such as romance, traveling, and talking. The Wife of Bath is a feminist who depicts through her tale her radical belief that women should have dominion over their husbands. As shown in the opening quotation, the Wife of Bath is not afraid to admit that she had experienced five marriages. The Wife of Bath’s radical beliefs are demonstrated through the phylogeny in â€Å"The Wife of Bath PrologueRead MoreUse Of Satire In Canterbury Tales1301 Words   |  6 PagesChaucer’s Satyric Attack (An analysis of Chaucer’s use of satire to reach his intended audience in his Canterbury Tales) Satire is defined as â€Å"the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize peoples stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues† (Oxford). Another term that people would be more familiar with to describe this would be sarcasm. Language can be utilized in a nasty way, especially when wanting to demoralizeRead MoreEssay about Common Sense, Ethics, and Dogma in The Wife of Bath3354 Words   |  14 PagesSense, Ethics, and Dogma in The Wife of Bath In his Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer assembles a band of pilgrims who, at the behest of their host, engage in a story-telling contest along their route. The stories told along the way serve a number of purposes, among them to entertain, to instruct, and to enlighten. In addition to the intrinsic value of the tales taken individually, the tales in their telling reveal much about the tellers. The pitting of tales one against another provides a

Friday, December 20, 2019

Gender Based Discrimination And Social Norms - 1233 Words

Gender-based discrimination and social norms are the most common causes of violence against women. Theoretically, these societal norms that have been in grated to us since childhood lead us to believe that the male gender has the right to do whatever they want while at the same time restrict the female gender from doing the same or condemn or punish them if they fail to obey such stigmas. So far, efforts have only focused on responses and services for survivors; given the devastating effect violence has on women. Preventing the violence from happening in the first place by addressing its root and structural causes is the best way to end violence against women and girls. It is only through education of boys at a young age that it is possible to change this norm of looking at women as the lesser sex. In order to prevent and eradicate gender-based discrimination in a fast and sustainable manner, working on the attitudes of the youth is the best possible step. This is because youth is a critical time when values and norms around gender equality are forged, while public policies and intervention often overlook this stage of life. The 57th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) placed a strong urge on the prevention of the gender-based discrimination. Working on the theme: â€Å"eliminate and prevent all forms of violence against women and girls†, which was attended by representatives of various organizations from all over the world. Prevention also means to make theShow MoreRelatedGender Differences And Gender Inequality1717 Words   |  7 Pages Gender differences and gender inequality are sometimes used interchangeably but do not refer to the same thing. The two concepts are common in gender literature; however, they are not uniform across different cultures based on the degree of conservative attitudes present. The significant differences between sexes and used as arguments against equal rights primarily against women’s rights. Hence, the gender issue has continually been created in light of the standard views or conceptions ofRead MoreSocial Construction Of The Labor Market1169 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction Though societal norms exist, we must understand that there are negative results and learn to challenge these norms (gender norms). That is why unions are being created, to fix these problems of inequality people face in the labour market. It may never be the intention of the labour force to propagate gender inequality, or perhaps not out rightly so. Unfortunately, the social construction of society has created norms that individuals unconsciously follow and pass on from one generationRead MoreWhat Was The Aftermath Of The Provision? After Ab12661648 Words   |  7 Pagesviolated by a transgender person would have the right to sue for no less than $4,000† (Garza). The act also requires that people use the bathroom that matches their birth sex and this includes bathrooms in public places and in government buildings. Norms Kristen Schilt and Laurel Westbrook, sociologists from the University of Chicago and Grand Valley University, describe in their article â€Å"bathroom battlegrounds and penis panics† the underlying logic and myths behind the â€Å"sexual predator† argument inRead MoreGender Is A Complex And Controversial Phenomenon1415 Words   |  6 PagesGender remains a very complex and controversial phenomenon. Within most societies, gender is defined along binary lines- through a two-part system. Some individuals do not find it difficult being socialized and identifying with a societies’ definition of â€Å"femaleness† and â€Å"maleness†. Others, however, have a more difficult time. The term â€Å"transgender† refers to particular individuals whose gender identification does not align with what society would rather regard them as, and are based on the conventionalRead MoreGender Discrimination And The Transgender Community1600 Words   |  7 Pagesexpress themselves, etc. Dalton Conley explains that gender â€Å"[Is] a collectively defined guidebook that humans use to make distinctions among themselves, to separate one being from another, and to comprehend an otherwise fuzzy mass of individuals.† (279) However, when this â€Å"collectively defined guidebook† is mildly altered, many individuals are confused and respond negatively towards these changes. Transgenders are individuals who identify with a gender that does not correspond with their sex, and soRead MoreGender Inequality : Gender And Gender982 Words   |  4 Pages Gender is based on cultural assumptions that classifies on what positions should be held based on gender. Therefore, Gender inequality affects people in the workforce because of the gender wage gap in institutions. For example, jobs are sex segregated based on gender roles and status. The gender gap is based on wages and job positions. This causes for males and women to earn different because of gender. Even if they have the same positions males are look as authority. Men are favoredRead MoreThe Impact Of Globalization On The Workplace Environments Of Different Cultures Essay1710 Words   |  7 Pagesor abusive† (Green 658). Thus, judgements based on looks are completely tolerated, as aesthetic discrimination is arguably not abusive. Iranian scholar Zahra Ghordati notes in her recent publication, â€Å"The Influence of Globalization on ‘Lookism’ in Workplace Environments of Different Cultures†, that â€Å"individuals should be free to discriminate on the basis of their own values. This means that institutions are free to enact policies that prohibit discrimination against or benefit in some way those whoRead MoreCycle of Socialization Essay examples982 Words   |  4 PagesThe cycle of socialization is a process through which social identities are created, and in effect, each individual represents and is affected by their social identity. According to the cycle of socialization, the first stop in the socialization process is outside of one’s control—one is socialized even before they are born. Our social identities are predetermined, and we are born in a world with roles, rules, and assumptions already in place. Our family and role models teach these rules and rolesRead MoreGender And Gender Inequality1084 Words   |  5 Pagesnot changeable. Gender is seen closely related to the roles and behavior assigned to women and men based on their sexual differences. As soon as a child is born families and society begin the process of gendering. The birth of the son is celebrated, the birth of a daughter filled with pain; sons are showered with love, respect, better food and proper health care. Boys are encouraged to be tough and outgoing; girls are encouraged to be homebound and shy. All these differences are gender differences andRead MoreGender Inequality Within India And India996 Words   |  4 Pageslack of equality, disparity, inequality of size, and social disparity. In simple terms, gender inequality is defined as discrimination against women based on their sex. Women are generally considered as the weaker sex. They are misused, degraded, violated and segregated both in homes and in the outside world. Women are oppressed all around the world, yet it is more prominent in India. Social and economic processes produce and reproduce gender inequality within the community and the family. Using

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Hemingway Protagonist Soldiers Home Essay Example For Students

Hemingway Protagonist Soldiers Home Essay Hemingway Protagonist Soldiers HomeVarious authors, through years of discipline, develop their own style increating characters. Ernest Hemingway varied his style by establishing anindestructible template for pressing characters into molded protagonists. Thistemplate protagonist follows a unique set of standards unlike anyother character, produced by any other author. In his literary workSoldiers Home, Hemingway creates the character Krebs to abide bythis set of standards. By working within the circumstances presented to him,Krebs fits the mold of a typical Hemingway protagonist by overcoming hisdisillusions through heroic actions. To begin with, Krebs returns home fromWorld War I to a society that he no longer feels attached to. It can be assumedthat before the war Krebs worked within society since he is depicted in acollege photo along with his similarly-dressed fraternity brothers. When heenlists into the Marines though, life becomes simplistic; you eat, sleep, andfight. The probl em arises when Krebs tries to return from a simplistic lifestyleof war, to a much more complicated domestic lifestyle. Ironically, Krebsis disillusioned less by the war than by the normal peacetime world which thewar had made him to see too clearly to accept (Burhans 190). Krebs seeksrefuge from this disillusion by withdrawing from society and engaging himself inindividual activities. A typical day for Krebs consists of going to the libraryfor a book, which he would read until bored, practicing his clarinet, andshooting pool in the middle of the day; this is common for a Hemingwayprotagonist. Hemingway realizes that with the disappearance of thetranscendent and the absolute from mans consciousness, the universe becomesempty of meaning and purpose (Burhans 284); a good basis for testing aprotagonist to see whether or not hes heroic . A more specific way that Krebswithdraws from society is his view of women and love. In a society full of talk,Krebs would have to engage in conversation and interaction in order to win awomans heart. Krebs did not want to go through all of that again. He found itmuch easier during the war to become intimate with a French or German girl,especially considering that there wasnt as much red tape inEuropean relationships. It was just too complicated to adjust himself back to anAmerican relationship which he deemed full of consequences. In other works byHemingway, protagonists are haunted by a sense of how simple it all wasonce, when he could take his Indian girl into the clean-smelling woods, stretchout beside her on the pine-needles (her brother standing guard), and rise to noobligations at all (Fiedler 143). Krebs is much the same way. Heexperienced this obligation-free relationship in Europe and was disgusted by thethought of returning to an obligated relationship in America. Hemingway himselflearned of obligations from four separate marriages; why should any of hisfictional characters escape this dreaded wrath. Another way that Kreb s withdrawsfrom society is the loss of his faith. Before the war Krebs attended a Methodistcollege, which reinforces the idea that he was a man of faith. During the warthough, Krebs experiences a change in his beliefs. It can only be imagined whatunholy things he had seen and done in the midst of battle. Once home, hedenounces existing in Gods Kingdom to his mother and refuses to pray. Hemingwayfelt that it is this determination to be faithful to ones own experience,not to fake emotions or pretend to sentiments that are not there isbrought out in Krebs character (Howe 233). It is this tone, the importance ofones inner beliefs over anyone elses, which pushes Hemingways protagonistaway from society. So how does one become heroic after denouncing so much ofsociety? If alive today, Hemingways answer may very well be grace underpressure. Customary in Hemingways literary works, such as Santiago in TheOld Man and the Sea, the protagonist is always fighting a losing battle. PhilipYoung, a w ell-known critic of Hemingway, says it best when he states that inlife you lose, of course; what counts is how you conduct yourself whileyou are being destroyed (Young 274). A Hemingway hero would take notice ofhis ill fate and make the best of it. The motive behind Hemingways heroicfigures is not glory, or fortune, or the righting of injustice, or the thirstfor experience. They are inspired neither by vanity nor ambition nor a desire tobetter the world. They have no thoughts of reaching a state of higher grace orvirtue. Instead, their behavior is a reaction to the moral emptiness of theuniverse, an emptiness that they feel compelled to fill by their own specialefforts. (Gurko 229) In Soldiers Home, Krebs realizes the problemsthat he faces; he no longer believes in society, particularly love and faith. .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 , .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .postImageUrl , .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 , .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7:hover , .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7:visited , .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7:active { border:0!important; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7:active , .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7 .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua5599b97d12aa20cce943bc8675d02c7:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Russian Geography and its affect on Society Essay Krebs heroic deed is displayed when he moves on with his life, rather thanbringing it to a screeching halt. At one point, he denounces loving his ownmother. In order to satisfy his mother and avoid friction, Krebs holds back thenausea and lies, saying that he does love her. Krebs also announces his plans tomove out of town for a job; to get on with his life. No doubt, Krebs displaysgrace under pressure. In the end, the protagonist fromSoldiers Home, Krebs, proves himself to be a typical product ofHemingway. Hemingways mold often required a character to be socially withdrawn,from women and faith, and to overcome these disillusions by becoming heroic. Krebs succeeded in this mold by engaging in non-sociable activities, ridiculingthe complexity of relationships with women, and denouncing his Methodist faith. To top it all off, Krebs can truly be seen as a Hemingway hero by demonstratinggrace under pressure. BibliographyBurhans, Clinton S. Jr. Hemingway and Vonnegut: Diminishing Vision in aDying Age. Modern Fiction Studies (1975): 173-191. Rpt. in ContemporaryLiterary Criticism. Vol 8. Eds. Dedria Bryfonski, Phyllis Carmel Mendelson. Detroit: Gale Research Company. 1978. 284-285. Burhans, Clinton S. Jr. TheComplex Unity of In Our Time. Modern Fiction Studies. 14 (1968). 313-328. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol 30. Ed. Jean C. Stine,Daniel G. Marowski. Detroit: Gale Research Company. 1984. 188-191. Fiedler,Leslie. Men without Women. Love and Death in the American Novel(1959). Rpt. in Hemingway: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Robert P. Weeks. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1962. 86-92. Gurko, Leo. Ernest Hemingwayand the Pursuit of Heroism. (1968). Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism Vol6. Eds. Carolyn Riley, Phyllis Carmel Mendelson. Detroit: Gale Research Company. 1976. 229. Howe, Irving. A World More Attractive: A View of Modern Literatureand Politics. (1963). 65-70. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism Vol 3. Ed. Carolyn Riley. Detroit: Gale Research Company. 1975. 232-233. Young, Philip. Ernest Hemingway. American Writers Pamphlet No. 1 (1959). Rpt. inContemporary Literary Criticism. Vol 13. Ed. Dedric Bryfonski. Detroit: GaleResearch Company. 1980. 273-276.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Organisation free essay sample

The subject matter of Organizational Behaviour is complex. Organizational Behaviour is not a homogeneous subject, but the result of a mingling of other disciplines such as psychology, sociology, politics, philosophy and economics. The fact that a subject called Organizational Behaviour exists in Business and Management courses is due to the need of those with managing people and systems at work to inform their thinking as they address the underlying social and behavioural issues that confront them. Since the study of Organizational Behaviour is composed of a blending of various social sciences, it will involve, to a certain extent, the approach of behavioural science – a collective term for the grouping of all the social sciences concerned with the study of people’s behaviour[1]. Three main disciplines are: Psychology:Study of human behaviour, traits of the individual (perception, attitudes and motives), and membership of small social groups. Sociology:Study of social behaviour, relationships among social groups and societies, and the maintenance of order (e. We will write a custom essay sample on Organisation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page g. he relationship between the behaviour of leaders and followers). Anthropology:More concerned with the science of mankind and the study of human behaviour as a whole – cultural system: the beliefs, customs, ideas and values within a group or society. Organization There is also the problem of defining what is an ‘organization’. Morgan, G. (1986), Sage Publications (â€Å"†¦organizations are complex and paradoxical phenomena that can be understood in many ways. Many of our taken-for-granted ideas about organizations are metaphorical†¦For example, we frequently talk about organizations as if they were machines†¦Ã¢â‚¬  It is because the concept of organization is so difficult to understand that other metaphors, apart from machines, are used to understand its nature. Therefore organization is variously described as organisms, brains, cultures, etc. Machines (the mechanistic or classical view)Organizations can be designed as if they are machines giving relations between clearly defined parts. This can provide the basis for efficient operation in a routine, reliable and predictable way. Organizations viewed as machines function better in a stable and protected environment. Organisms (the organic view)In this regard the organization is considered as behaving like a living system. Biological mechanisms adapt to changes in their environment, so do organizations, as open systems, adapt to the changing external environment. Brains(the cybernetic view)Brains are inventive and rational. The challenge is to create organizations capable of intelligent change and therefore able to disperse brainlike capabilities. Cultures (a product of their dominant values)The collective interest and unity of an organization is built up through shared beliefs, habits and traditions. Handy (1993), Understanding Organisations (4th Edn), Penguin Business â€Å"†¦ anyone who has spent time with any variety of organizations, or worked in more than two or three, will have been struck by the differing atmospheres, the differing ways of doing things, the differing levels of energy, of individual freedom, of kinds of personality. For organizations are as different and varied as th e nations and societies of the world. They have differing cultures – sets of values and norms and beliefs – reflected in different structures and systems† Psychic Prisons (sources of stress)The way the organizations are designed and structured and the methods and procedures of work, etc are likely sources of stress to the workers. The above metaphors, though providing a broader view of the dynamics of organizational behaviour, are not fixed. An organization can be a mix of each, and predominantly a combination of two or three metaphors, which may change over a period of time. Whatever definition taken, an organization is a means to an end rather than an end in itself. Organizations in these circumstances are usually structured in a formal way that recognizes individual responsibilities and yet circumscribes them at the same time. The more junior the position held in the organization, the more restricted is the scope for decision-making. The higher the position the greater the freedom of discretion. There are organization theories that insist that people must be controlled if organization goals are to be achieved. There are also other theories, which suggest that individuals perform better if allowed freedom and responsibility, and therefore should be subject to fewer controls. A fuller definition of an organization could thus be: A work organization consists of a group (large or small) or groups of people who collaborate in a structured and relatively permanent way in order to achieve one or more goals, which they could not achieve by acting on their own. Such an organization is structured in a manner, which formally recognizes, and places, the tasks and roles that individuals are expected to fulfil. The operation of work organizations implies a considerable degree of control over individual members, especially those most junior in the task structure. The predominant values and standards of the members of an organization develop over time to form an organization culture, which is a preferred way of doing things. The particular form and culture adopted by an organization is considerably affected by technological and environmental factors[2] For an organization to be successful the importance of achieving productivity through the effective management of people, and their commitment to, and involvement with the organization has to be stressed. Some people may well have a set motivation to work, whatever the nature of the work environment. But work situations may also influence the individual’s orientation to work. It is through the process of management that the efforts of members of the organization are directed and guided towards the achievement of organizational goals. The Meaning of Organizational Behaviour (The behaviour of People) Organizational Behaviour is concerned with the study of the behaviour of people within an organizational setting. It involves the understanding, prediction and control of human behaviour. Common definitions of organizational behaviour (OB) are generally along the lines of: the study and understanding of individual and group behaviour, and patterns of structure in order to help improve organizational performance and effectiveness (Laurie J Mullins, page 14). There is a close relation between organizational behaviour and management theory and practice. Some writers seem to suggest that organizational behaviour and management are synonymous. But this is an over simplification. Organizational behaviour does not encompass the whole of management; it is more accurately described in the narrower interpretation of providing a behavioural approach to management. The Framework of Study The behaviour of people, however, cannot be studied in isolation. It is necessary to understand interrelationships with other variables, which together comprise the total organization. This will involve consideration of interactions among the formal structure, the tasks to be undertaken, the technology employed and methods of carrying out work, the process of management and the external environment. The study of organizational behaviour, hence embraces an understanding of: o The behaviour of people; o The process of management; o The organizational context in which the process of management takes place; o Organizational processes and the execution of work; and o Interactions with the external environment of which the organization is part. A number of interrelated dimensions such as the individual, the group, the organization and the environment (which collectively influence behaviour in work organizations) can be identified by the above variables. The Individual Individuals make up organizations. Hence individual is a central feature of organizational behaviour whether the individual is acting alone or in a group in response to expectations of the organization, or as a result of the influences of the external environment. Where the needs of the individual and the demands of the organization are incompatible, this can result in frustration and conflict. It is the task of management to provide a working environment, which permits the satisfaction of individual needs as well as the attainment of organizational goals. The Group Groups are found in all organizations. They are essential to the working and performance of the organizations. Such groups (commonly referred to as informal groups) arise from the social needs of people within the organization. Members of the groups influence each other and may develop their own hierarchies and leaders. Group pressures can have a major influence over the behavior and performance of individual members. An understanding of group structure and behaviour complements knowledge of individual behaviour and adds a further dimension to organizational behaviour. The Organization An organization is structured to establish relationships between individuals and groups, to provide order and systems and to direct the efforts of the organization into goal-seeking activities. It is through the formal structure that people carry out their organizational activities in order to achieve aims and objectives. Behaviour is affected by patterns of organization structure, technology, styles of leadership and systems of management through which organizational processes are planned, directed and controlled. The focus of attention, therefore, is on the impact of organization structure and design, and patterns of management, on the behaviour of people within the organization. The Environment The organization is part of the broader external environment. The external environment affects the organization through technological and scientific development, economic activity, social and cultural influences and governmental actions. The effects of the operation of the organization within its environment are reflected in terms of the management of opportunities and risks and the successful achievement of its aims and objectives. The increasing rate of change in environmental factors has highlighted the need to study the total organization and the processes by which the organization attempts to adapt to the external demands placed upon it. Organizational Behaviour and Management Theory and Practice As discussed in the previous page Organizational Behaviour also encompasses Management Theory. Management Theory is especially concerned with issues of goal setting, resource deployment, employee motivation, teamwork, eadership, control and coordination, and performance measurement. Like Organizational Behaviour, it is an eclectic subject, which draws on the social sciences for most of its material. The difference in emphasis between Organizational Behaviour and Management Theory is principally that the former is concerned with examining the behaviour of people at all levels in groups, whilst the latter is more focused on the control of people’s behaviour by their managers in the pursuit of organizational go als.